Hughes and Ryan Sawby; 8. How do such responses affect population viability, community dynamics, and ecosystem functioning? Ecosystem simplification is the ecological hallmark of humanity and the reason for our evolutionary success. A simple mathematical model of bacterial transmission within a hospital was used to study the effects of measures to control nosocomial transmission of bacteria and reduce antimicrobial resistance in nosocomial pathogens. Throughout the book, the fundamental concepts and techniques that underlie the modeling are carefully explained in a unique series of integrated boxes. Management of native acacias on subtropical rangelands for wood products, fodder, and soil improvement would probably directly and indirectly benefit migratory song bird populations.
The author's basic theme is that management should be viewed as an adaptive process: one learns about the potentials of natural populations to sustain harvesting mainly through experience with management itself, rather than through basic research or the development of general ecological theory. To tackle this challenge, areas of conservation biology that are disparate ought to be integrated into a unified framework. In North American populations, no wing length cline was detected one decade after the introduction. Pathogen evolution: the case of malaria Sunetra Gupta; 26. Epilogue Regis Ferriere, Ulf Dieckmann and Denis Couvet; References; Index. Under these changing scenarios, it is imperative to find out how a population is driven towards extinction, and at what stage s human intervention is necessary to alter the course of direction.
Spatial dimensions of population viability Mats Gyllenberg, Ilkka Hanski and Johan A. This is a necessary step in order to interpret observed phylogenetic patterns in a wider ecological context. Our global impact is finally receiving the scientific attention it deserves. Fixation of new mutations in small populations Michael C. Ecophylogenetics can be viewed as an emerging fusion of ecology, biogeography and macroevolution.
However, examples from adaptive tracking in common species and genetic rescues in species of conservation concern provide convincing evidence in favour of the mechanisms of evolutionary rescue. Reconciliation ecology discovers how to modify and diversify anthropogenic habitats so that they harbor a wide variety of species. Responses to environmental change: adaptation or extinction Richard Frankham and Joel Kingsolver; 6. Different shocks occurring at the three phases separately and the fourth one occurring at any of the phases are considered in this study to take care of environmental stochasticity. Under which conditions will evolutionary responses ameliorate, rather than worsen, the impact of environmental change?. A much greater and more urgently applied investment to address these deficiencies is obviously warranted.
Contents Contributing authors; Acknowledgements; Notational standards; 1. From United Kingdom to U. Stochasticity also gives rise to a genetical and demographic variation which allows the evolution of some dispersal strategies: avoiding competitive interactions with the mother, inbreeding, or resource competition, and cueing on population density. The rate of morphological evolution on a continental scale is very fast, relative even to rates measured within local populations. Eutrophication-induced loss of deep-water oxygen started in the early 1960s, and may have contributed to the 1980s collapse of indigenous fish stocks by eliminating suitable habitat for certain deep-water cichlids. Empirical evidence for rapid evolution David Reznick, Helen Rodd and Leonard Nunney 7. Whitlock and Reinhard Burger; 10.
The need for an adaptive view of management has become increasingly obvious over the last two decades, as management has turned more often to quantitative model building as a tool for prediction of responses to alternative harvesting policies. The discussants offered recommendations, including two of paramount importance concerning human populations and education , seven identifying specific scientific activities to better equip us for stewardship of the processes of evolution, and one suggesting that such stewardship is now our responsibility. This creates an important and promising bridge between sustainability and bifurcation theory,one of the most important areas of systems analysis. Human activities have greatly reduced the amount of the earth's area available to wild species. Thus many of the unique glacier archives are in imminent danger of being lost forever. Imasheva and Volker Loeschcke; Part C.
Environmental stress and quantitative genetic variation Alexandra G. Coevolution of virus and host cell death signals David C. This is relevant both to how species loss has translated into a loss of evolutionary history and to assigning conservation priorities. Evolutionary Conservation Biology presents a great deal of useful information related to conservation geneticists and evolutionary ecology. Here, we present high-resolution palaeolimnological data, which show that increases in phytoplankton production developed from the 1930s onwards, which parallels human-population growth and agricultural activity in the Lake Victoria drainage basin. Holt and Richard Gomulkiewicz; 14. The analysis is purely theoretical and is based on very simple and general assumptions about the interactions between the three main components of the system: the tourists, the environment, and the capital.
Theory predicts steady states in species diversity, and fossils suggest that these have typified life for most of the past 500 million years. Cambridge Studies in Adaptive Dynamics, 3. Introduction Regis Ferriere, Ulf Dieckmann and Denis Couvet; Part A. Super- and coinfection: filling the range Frederick Adler and Julio Mosquero Losada; 11. How do such responses affect population viability, community dynamics, and ecosystem functioning? Co-evolutionary dynamics and extinction Judith Bronstein and Ulf Dieckmann 17. Extinction would occur because the physiologies, morphologies, and life histories of plants limit each species to being a superior competitor for a particular combination of environmental constraints. Denis Couvet is Professor at Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France and Professor at the Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, France.