Element Spacing and Sampling Intensity. This volume is then also stored through a further action block, 39, in database 22 for a later call therefor by computer 16. Restricted selection affords estimation of attribute totals for a population when the population size — for example, the area of an areal continuum — is unknown. A method for determining volumes of lubricants used in lubricating systems for aircraft turbofan engine equipment that would be present at selected temperatures in such systems based on measured volumes of the lubricants present in reservoirs in those lubricating systems at measured temperatures of the lubricants, such lubricating systems further having lubricant use structures interconnected by passageways to which arrangement entry connections are made from each corresponding lubricant reservoir to allow lubricant in that reservoir to reach the lubricant use structures during operation of the aircraft turbofan engine equipment and from which arrangement return couplings are made to each corresponding lubricant reservoir to allow the lubricant to return to that reservoir during operation of the aircraft turbofan engine equipment, the method comprising: predetermining a fixed volume occurring within the use structures and passageways of the lubricant distribution and use arrangement, all entry connections and all return couplings together forming a distribution and use system and further including in that system any variable volume devices connected thereto so that any variable volume additions provided thereby are added to the fixed volume to predetermine a distribution and use system volume at a selected representative temperature; measuring one or more subsequent temperatures of the lubricant at one or more locations in the lubricating system, and measuring any subsequent variable volume additions to the distribution and use system, to determine the subsequent measured representative temperature of the lubricating system; measuring subsequent volumes of the lubricant in all lubricant reservoirs in the lubricant distribution and use system to provide the subsequent measured lubricant volume; determining densities expected for the lubricant at the selected temperature and at the subsequent measured temperature; and calculating the subsequent volume of the lubricant that would be in the lubricant reservoirs at the selected temperature as a calculated lubricant volume. The method of claim 1, wherein the lubricant use structures comprise engine main bearings, engine gear box gears, and engine seals.
Since the fluid temperature remains the same during operation for whatever reason, there is no oil density correction, and the change in measured level is compensated for by the change in system volume provided by the accumulator. Systematic sampling is easy, efficient, and widely used, though it is not generally recognized that a systematic sample may be drawn from the population of interest with or without restrictions on randomization. Such losses, even with a lubrication system oil reservoir, or reservoirs, for storing additional oil being continually kept available to the system, must be countered by adding further replacement oil at appropriate times to that reservoir or reservoirs. Today an estimated 800 covered bridge structures remain. This information establishes a b. Is the deer herd large enough to survive hunting pressure? Ratio estimation, however, is most likely a more precise option when the selection is restricted and the population size becomes known at the end of the sampling. The method of claim 14 wherein the determining of the densities expected for the lubricant at the selected temperature and at the measured temperature is based on a density value at a standard temperature adjusted by combining therewith a temperature dependent correction term.
The data obtained from these measurements are transmitted by, or from, these sensors to an onboard data processing and control computer, 16, for processing of that using the methods of the present invention. This work shows that th. With these conversion factors, computer 16 then needs the current levels of lubricant, or oil, in each reservoir r in the q reservoirs in the lubrication system to determine the volume or volumes of oil in that reservoir or reservoirs. Measuring carbon in old-growth forests helps managers understa. Testing for Homogeneity of Variance Using F. Comparison of the Methods of Allocation. .
The method of claim 14 wherein the calculating of the subsequent volume of the lubricant that would be in the reservoir at the selected temperature comprises determining a segmentation of the distribution and use system based on each segment selected having a significant lubricant temperature difference between it and adjacent segments, measuring the subsequent lubricant temperature in each of the segments along with any subsequent variable volumes additions to that segment to find the subsequent segment volume through adding together the fixed volume for that segment and any subsequent variable volumes additions measured for that segment, forming the segment product by multiplying together the subsequent lubricant temperature therein and the subsequent segment volume for that segment, summing the segment products to form a system product sum, dividing the system product sum by the subsequent distribution and use system volume, the latter found by adding together the subsequent segment volumes, to thereby determine the subsequent measured representative temperature. The influence of temperature on O. This lubrication system may provide cooling and lubrication to other components, 11, that are not directly a part of the main engine but, perhaps, are subject to operating forces therefrom that power those components during their operation such as associated integrated drive generator systems that have their lubrication systems integrated with the engine lubrication system. The author covers probability and probability distributions and the development of logical regression models. The Binomial Probability Distribution B:n,p. This anthology on the philosophical arguments for the finitude of the past asks: Is an infinite series of past events metaphysically possible? Managing forest resources entails numerous decisions.
The Mean of Random a Variable. Principles of geographic information systems — An introductory textbook. Oil level sensor 14 initially indicates that there are 12 quarts of oil in oil reservoir 13. Oil level sensor 14 initially indicates that there are 12 quarts of oil in oil reservoir 13. Temperature sensors, 15, may be required in other segments of the oil distribution and use system to measure oil temperatures corresponding to the locations of those segments therein to provide data for use in determining a representative oil temperature for the oil distribution and use system.
The Regression of the Mean. Approximations of the Variance of the Overall Mean. Before selecting a sampling procedure you need to know their strengths and weaknesses in relation to their expense. The proofs of unbiasedness of the estimators for restricted or unrestricted selection are straightforward. Making these decisions intelligently requires sound information about the resource in question.
Calculating the volume of the working fluid that would be currently in the reservoir if it were currently at the selected representative temperature is completed with the values of the foregoing currently measured parameters. The method of claim 1 wherein the calculating of the subsequent volume of the lubricant that would be in the reservoir at the selected temperature comprises adding the fixed volume and any subsequent variable volumes additions to determine the subsequent distribution and use system volume, adding the subsequent measured lubricant volume and the subsequent distribution and use system volume to form a sum that is multiplied by the density expected for the lubricant at the subsequent measured representative temperature to form a product that is divided by the density expected for the lubricant at the selected representative temperature to form a ratio, and subtracting from that ratio the distribution and use system volume. The restrictions or the lack of them determine which estimators are unbiased, when using the sampling design as the basis for inference. However, computer 16 could alternatively loop back to ahead of action block 21 and enter there, as new reference parameters, the corresponding parameters found in this previous oil volume change determination to thereby allow the next change determination to be made relative to this previous determination. Contemporary forests are compared to their historical counterparts.
After engine 10 operates for 10 minutes, the oil representative temperature reaches 220° F. Overlapping and Interlocking of Clusters. This text contains detailed derivations of the most commonly used statistical methods in forestry. Homogeneity Test Using a Sample Mean. During such lubrications, leakages past seals, and heating of the lubricating oil caused to occur due to mechanical energy losses in the lubricated apparatus that leads to evaporation, together result in lubricating oil losses during engine operations.