It may be related too, to the phenomenon of cortical excavations that are of considerable interest to paleopathologists. There was still the problem of analysing the patterns better, textures shown in the radiographs. Three strained ellipses in the three-dimensional case of Fig. These special strains are called principal strains. Arm-chair analysis of the biceps tendon winding around the cross-section of the radius as it attaches to the radial tuberosity. It may have to involve an interface between the three-dimensional computational programmes and an anatomist operator to allow coincident three-dimensional display of finite element analyses with three-dimensional e. This seemed to be a further confirmation of the mechanical efficiency of spongy bone at this, admittedly rather simplistic, level.
This matter is not yet settled. This would produce the observed convexity. Our assessment was that differences like this were probably of functional import in relationship to overall locomotor patterns, reflecting differences in the orientation of muscle pulls. The fact that their limbs but not their bones bear weight by tension rather than compression does not deny the idea. Figure 18 shows the circle deformed into an ellipse.
Research is very often a kind of Alice-in-Wonderland task. The lines indicate the contours of the stress differences. This can obviously be done by visualising bone structures through microscopic examination of sections of bones and by radiography looking at the shadows of the interior of 39 40 Ghostly Muscles, Wrinkled Brains, Heresies and Hobbits whole bones or sections of bones. Furthermore, they were expected to meet and venture beyond present-day thought in the subject. Whereas males and females are very similar in the first, second and fourth quadrants, females differ significantly from males in the third antero-superior quadrant. A tendon like this should not have a sesamoid. However, that technique, involving a homogeneous model, is crude compared to the complex heterogeneity of the actual bio-architecture that exists.
Similar findings were, of course, evident in most other shoulder muscles. Again I had the scapula in mind. This implies that the trabecular arrangement must be at a variety of angles other than orthogonal. Entrants are drawn from all areas of Australian life, including the arts, politics, education, medicine, defence, business, diplomatic service, and recipients of honours and awards. In these cases of course, the membrane is permanent as it were , in the scapula it only The Shape of Bones: Tension and Compression Fig.
First, muscles contain information associated with the postures and movements of bones. Typeset by Stallion Press Email: Printed in Singapore. Perhaps the 88 Ghostly Muscles, Wrinkled Brains, Heresies and Hobbits primate innervation pattern is representative of the older reptilian muscular anatomy? The lowest figure that one can have is 2. The second relates to understanding how architectures change in relation to changing biomechanics: the mechanism of adaptation of bone. Second, muscles provide information about the mechanical efficiency of bone shape and architecture. This technique could give statistical information about patterns far more definitively than was provide by ad hoc measures of individual elements of the patterns. I have never dared go back to see if my answer was right, though I suspect it was.
The relationships between stress and architecture of the bridges that he presented were so obvious in the bridge over the Forth that was just down the Firth from my Scottish childhood home. The importance of nerve supply in determining muscular homologies Wood, 1867; Testut, 1884 is equally evident in many other regions. I have always been blessed with mathematically gifted colleagues with real abilities to understand my biological problems. This fixes freezes the stress patterns in the model in three dimensions. The lectures had to be understandable not only to undergraduate and graduate students and colleagues, but also to the interested lay public. Radiograph of a thick sagittal section of a lumbar vertebra and its transform in a young male.
This site is like a library, you could find million book here by using search box in the widget. Under this more complex circumstance the mechanical efficiency of a tube for bending depends upon an engineering quantity: the second moment of area. Initially this work started with my arm-chair pencil 4 Ghostly Muscles, Wrinkled Brains, Heresies and Hobbits and paper guesses about stresses in the incus. Because physical dissection is time-consuming and physically damaging of specimens the dissections of the regions above that I have performed are limited. The dorsal-most part of the attachment of the tendon is actually a concavity a pit. I could not understand what all the excitement was about.
The anatomies of connective tissue sheets lying around and between muscles and bones fasciae are scarcely known at all. The lectures had to be understandable not only to undergraduate and graduate students and colleagues, but also to the interested lay public. The other, at right angles to the first, is the maximum contraction of the circle into the ellipse and is called the minimum principal strain. Principal components analysis of the differences between the Fourier transforms of the individual quadrants of the vertebral radiographs. . It soon became clear that I could also use it for understanding more of the complex internal texture of bone especially spongy bone, most evident in sections and radiographs of bones. Indeed, my earliest investigations in the 1950s involved dissections in comparative anatomy.