Unfortunately, more often than not, it proved impossible to identify them in the records. The Members of the Arenaviridae. Targeting this 2A protein may interfere the formation of the icosahedral viral capsid. Architecture, Composition, and Requirements for Infection. Additionally, the results provide clear evidence of the Red Queen dynamics of evolution since the virus has very much evolved to re-adapt its codon usage to the environmental cellular changing conditions in order to recover the original fitness.
The enzyme has been given the name cathepsin R, following the recommendations of Barrett et al. Herpesvirus Genome Arrangement and Gene Structure. Thank you for visiting nature. Protein Binding Sites in Alpha Promoter-regulatory Domains. Effect of Interferon on Influenza Virus Replication. The Regulation of Alpha Genes: A Microcosm of the General Pattern of Viral Gene Regulation. Picornavirions from three of the four recognized genera Study Group on Picornaviridae, Intervirology 10,165—180, 1978 have now been examined at low resolution by X-ray diffraction: poliovirus type 1 J.
The space group is P23, with four virus particles situated on crystallographic threefold axes. Post-Translational Processing of Viral Polypeptides. The Generation and Biology of Defective Interfering Particles. The Interferon-induced Protein Kinase Pathway. Latency: an Interaction of Herpesviruses with Their Hosts. With new insight into the structure of viral genomes, and a deeper understanding of the mechanisms that regulate their expression, our view of viruses was bound to change: this volume bears witness to this impressive advance. Cis- and Trans-acting Factors in Viral Gene Expression.
A particular case of overlapping genes are the so-called hidden genes, hidden frames or mini-cistrons found in the poliovirus Pierangeli et al. The primary structure of the poliovirus genome has been determined. Proteolytic Processing in Various Virus Families. Micropolymorphism of Herpesvirus Genomes: An Epidemiologic Tool. Regardless, however, recombination has also been observed with non-replicating genomes Gmyl et al. Genetic Stability of Paramyxoviruses and Their Evolution.
Possible Role of Chemical Carcinogens. The Early Events in Viral Gene Expression. Twelve viral polypeptides have been mapped by amino acid sequence analysis and were found to be proteolytic cleavage products of the polyprotein, cleavages occurring predominantly at Gln-Gly pairs. The Molecular Biology of the Adenovirus Replication Cycle. The final goal of this intriguing strategy seems to be the need for a fine-tuning control of the translation kinetics, particularly at the capsid coding region, and the underlying mechanism is the use of a right combination of common and rare codons to allow a regulated ribosome traffic rate thus ensuring the proper protein folding. These are short open reading frames, i. .
Readthrough or suppression of a termination codon. Similarities between Hepadna Viruses and Retroviruses in Genome Organization and Replication Mechanisms. Expression of the Viral Genome. Molecular Attributes of the Arenaviridae. Crystals of Mengo virions have been grown reproducibly and analyzed by X-ray diffraction.
Unifying Hypothesis Relating Viral and Nonviral Factors in Hepatic Oncogenesis. Hepatitis A is the most common among all hepatitis worldwide in spite of an efficient vaccine and improved hygiene. This pattern of mutation appeared to be a feature common to all neurovirulent variants of poliovirus type 2. The mini cistron 157-192 is conserved in position, length and sequence in the genome of all types and strains of poliovirus. The Genetic Attributes of Arenaviruses.
Internal in-phase initiation within a gene. The biological significance of frequent occurrence of recombinants among field isolates of vaccine-related strains is discussed. A significant loss of fitness was the immediate response to the adaptation process that was, however, later on recovered and more associated to a re-deoptimization rather than to an optimization of the codon usage specifically in the capsid coding region. In addition, the 2A protein can strongly inhibit human growth hormone the translation of which is entirely cap-dependent via an unknown mechanism Maltese et al. The result was a stimulating atmosphere, conducive to authentic scientific exchanges. The Direct Approach: Protein Primers. These results exclude translation selection and instead suggest fine-tuning translation kinetics selection as the underlying mechanism of the codon usage bias in this specific genome region.
Klug, Nature London 183, 1709—1714, 1959; J. However, in apparent contradiction with this fact, various alterations in these elements were reported to be lethal 52,119,121,136,341, 511,512. The present paper contains evidence that cathepsin R in rat liver ribosomes is present in a cryptic form. Regulation at the Level of Elongation and Termination. The crossover points in all the 5 genomes have been mapped to different loci of the P3 region. The Molecular Biology of Adenovirus Transformation and Tumorigenesis.
The protein was further concentrated Vivaspin centrifugal concentrator , the insoluble material if present was discarded, and the homogeneity of the dispersion was ascertained by light scattering. The Polymerase Complex and Its Multiple Functions. Electronmicroscopy, ultracentrifugation and tissue culture were the landmarks on the way of the young science. Viruses that Use Reverse Transcriptase. Interferon Induced Genes and Proteins.